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The Olestra Post-Marketing Surveillance Study (OPMSS) was a series of three related, prospective, observational studies of the patterns of consumption of olestra-containing snacks and their association with serum concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids. The first study used repeated annual random-digit dial (RDD) telephone surveys to collect population-level data on the prevalence and patterns of olestra consumption; the second collected serum and extensive covariate information from volunteers drawn from each of the RDD surveys; and the third followed a cohort chosen to include a high percentage of olestra consumers. The study was conducted at four sites between 1996 and 2001. The OPMSS completed approximately 15,000 RDD cross-sectional telephone calls, 8.000 cross-sectional clinic visits, and followed a cohort of 2.000 for three years, completing 25,000 follow-up calls and 5,500 follow-up visits.